SQLite 语法

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2020-05-1516:14:20 评论 3K 3807字阅读12分41秒

SQLite 语法

SQLite 是遵循一套独特的称为语法的规则和准则。本教程列出了所有基本的 SQLite语法,向您提供了一个SQLite快速入门。

大小写敏感性

有个重要的点值得注意,SQLite是不区分大小写的,但也有一些命令是大小写敏感的,比如GLOB和glob在SQLite的语句中有不同的含义。

注释

SQLite 注释是附加的注释,可以在 SQLite 代码中添加注释以增加其可读性,他们可以出现在任何空白处,包括在表达式内和其他SQL语句的中间,但它们不能嵌套。

SQL 注释以两个连续的 "-" 字符(ASCII 0x2d)开始,并扩展至下一个换行符(ASCII 0x0a)或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。

您也可以使用C风格的注释,以 "/*" 开始,并扩展至下一个 "*/" 字符对或直到输入结束,以先到者为准。SQLite的注释可以跨越多行。

sqlite> .help -- 这是一个简单的注释

SQLite 语句

所有的SQLite语句可以以任何关键字开始,如SELECT、INSERT、UPDATE、DELETE、ALTER、DROP等,所有的语句以分号(;)结束。

SQLite ANALYZE语句:

ANALYZE;

or

ANALYZE database_name;

or

ANALYZE database_name.table_name;

SQLite AND/OR 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION-1 {AND|OR} CONDITION-2;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句:

ALTER TABLE table_name ADD COLUMN column_def...;

SQLite ALTER TABLE 语句(Rename):

ALTER TABLE table_name RENAME TO new_table_name;

SQLite ATTACH DATABASE 语句:

ATTACH DATABASE 'DatabaseName' As 'Alias-Name';

SQLite BEGIN TRANSACTION 语句:

BEGIN;

or

BEGIN EXCLUSIVE TRANSACTION;

SQLite BETWEEN 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name BETWEEN val-1 AND val-2;

SQLite COMMIT 语句:

COMMIT;

SQLite CREATE INDEX 语句:

CREATE INDEX index_name

ON table_name ( column_name COLLATE NOCASE );

SQLite CREATE UNIQUE INDEX 语句:

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name

ON table_name ( column1, column2,...columnN);

SQLite CREATE TABLE 语句:

CREATE TABLE table_name(

   column1 datatype,

   column2 datatype,

   column3 datatype,

   .....

   columnN datatype,

   PRIMARY KEY( one or more columns )

);

SQLite CREATE TRIGGER 语句:

CREATE TRIGGER database_name.trigger_name

BEFORE INSERT ON table_name FOR EACH ROWBEGIN

   stmt1;

   stmt2;

   ....

END;

SQLite CREATE VIEW 语句:

CREATE VIEW database_name.view_name  AS

SELECT statement....;

SQLite CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE 语句:

CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING weblog( access.log );

or

CREATE VIRTUAL TABLE database_name.table_name USING fts3( );

SQLite COMMIT TRANSACTION 语句:

COMMIT;

SQLite COUNT 子句:

SELECT COUNT(column_name)

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION;

SQLite DELETE 语句:

DELETE FROM table_name

WHERE  {CONDITION};

SQLite DETACH DATABASE 语句:

DETACH DATABASE 'Alias-Name';

SQLite DISTINCT 子句:

SELECT DISTINCT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name;

SQLite DROP INDEX 语句:

DROP INDEX database_name.index_name;

SQLite DROP TABLE 语句:

DROP TABLE database_name.table_name;

SQLite DROP VIEW 语句:

DROP VIEW view_name;

SQLite DROP TRIGGER 语句:

DROP TRIGGER trigger_name

SQLite EXISTS 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name EXISTS (SELECT * FROM   table_name );

SQLite EXPLAIN 语句:

EXPLAIN INSERT statement...;

or

EXPLAIN QUERY PLAN SELECT statement...;

SQLite GLOB 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name GLOB { PATTERN };

SQLite GROUP BY 子句:

SELECT SUM(column_name)

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION

GROUP BY column_name;

SQLite HAVING 子句:

SELECT SUM(column_name)

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION

GROUP BY column_name

HAVING (arithematic function condition);

SQLite INSERT INTO 语句:

INSERT INTO table_name( column1, column2....columnN)

VALUES ( value1, value2....valueN);

SQLite IN 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite Like 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name LIKE { PATTERN };

SQLite NOT IN 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  column_name NOT IN (val-1, val-2,...val-N);

SQLite ORDER BY 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION

ORDER BY column_name {ASC|DESC};

SQLite PRAGMA 语句:

PRAGMA pragma_name;

For example:

PRAGMA page_size;

PRAGMA cache_size = 1024;

PRAGMA table_info(table_name);

SQLite RELEASE SAVEPOINT 语句:

RELEASE savepoint_name;

SQLite REINDEX 语句:

REINDEX collation_name;

REINDEX database_name.index_name;

REINDEX database_name.table_name;

SQLite ROLLBACK 语句:

ROLLBACK;

or

ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SAVEPOINT 语句:

SAVEPOINT savepoint_name;

SQLite SELECT 语句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name;

SQLite UPDATE 语句:

UPDATE table_name

SET column1 = value1, column2 = value2....columnN=valueN

[ WHERE  CONDITION ];

SQLite VACUUM 语句:

VACUUM;

SQLite WHERE 子句:

SELECT column1, column2....columnN

FROM   table_name

WHERE  CONDITION;

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